13/11 domingo

Vamos começar a publicar por aqui trechos do material preparado pela professoa Mércia Barboza para o concurso do TRE-PE, então fique ligado, que hoje já tem a primeira parte. ;)

Conceito e Fontes

No Brasil, o Direito Eleitoral é o ramo do Direito Público encarregado de regulamentar os direitos políticos dos cidadãos e o processo eleitoral. É ramo autônomo, que se dedica ao estudo das normas e procedimentos que organizam e disciplinam o funcionamento do poder de sufrágio popular, de modo a que se estabeleça a precisa equação entre a vontade do povo e a atividade governamental.

A lei eleitoral é exclusivamente federal por expressa disposição constitucional (CF/1988, Art. 22, I), não podendo, portanto, estados e municípios disporem sobre regras de cunho eleitoral, nem mesmo supletivamente.

Art. 22. Compete privativamente à União legislar sobre:

I- direito civil, comercial, penal, processual, eleitoral, agrário, marítimo, aeronáutico, espacial e do trabalho;

Importante lembrar, que, conforme também disposto na Constituição Federal de 1988 (CF/1988, Art. 62, I, “a”), as Medidas Provisórias não poderão conter disposições com conteúdo eleitoral e/ou partidário.

Art. 62, § 1º É vedada a edição de medidas provisórias sobre matéria:

I- relativa a:

a) nacionalidade, cidadania, direitos políticos, partidos políticos e direito eleitoral;

Além das normas advindas do processo legislativo, o Código Eleitoral (CE/1965, Art. 1º, parágrafo único) autoriza o Tribunal Superior Eleitoral a expedir instruções para sua fiel execução. Surgem, assim, as Resoluções do TSE como fonte formal do Direito Eleitoral.

Art. 1º Este Código contém normas destinadas a assegurar a organização e o exercício de direitos políticos precipuamente os de votar e ser votado.

Parágrafo único. O Tribunal Superior Eleitoral expedirá Instruções para sua fiel execução.

Importante destacar a regra contida no Art. 105, da Lei nº 9.504/1997, quanto à expedição de Resoluções em ano de eleição, com redação dada pela Lei nº 12.034/2009.

Art. 105.  Até o dia 5 de março do ano da eleição, o Tribunal Superior Eleitoral, atendendo ao caráter regulamentar e sem restringir direitos ou estabelecer sanções distintas das previstas nesta Lei, poderá expedir todas as instruções necessárias para sua fiel execução, ouvidos, previamente, em audiência pública, os delegados ou representantes dos partidos políticos.

Cabe destacar ainda que no Direito Eleitoral vigora o Princípio da Anualidade ou da Anterioridade, isto é, embora entrando em vigor na data de sua publicação, a lei que alterar o processo eleitoral somente será aplicada se a eleição acontecer após um ano da data de sua vigência (CF/1988, Art. 16).

Art. 16. A lei que alterar o processo eleitoral entrará em vigor na data de sua publicação, não se aplicando à eleição que ocorra até um ano da data de sua vigência.

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